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Phallic architecture

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   Archiitectural or sculptural structures representing the human penis
   Phallic tombstone

   Phallic architecture consciously or unconsciously creates a symbolic
   representation of the human penis.^[1] Buildings intentionally or
   unintentionally resembling the human penis are a source of amusement to
   locals and tourists in various places around the world. Deliberate
   phallic imagery is found in ancient cultures and in the links to
   ancient cultures found in traditional artifacts.

   The ancient Greeks and Romans celebrated phallic festivals and built a
   shrine with an erect phallus to honor Hermes, messenger of the gods.
   Those figures may be related to the ancient Egyptian deity Min who was
   depicted holding his erect phallus. Figures of women with a phallus for
   a head have been found across Greece and Yugoslavia. Phallic symbolism
   was prevalent in the architectural tradition of ancient Babylon. The
   Romans, who were deeply superstitious, also often used phallic imagery
   in their architecture and domestic items. The ancient cultures of many
   parts of the Far East, including Indonesia, India, Korea and Japan,
   used the phallus as a symbol of fertility in motifs on their temples
   and in other areas of everyday life.

   Scholars of anthropology, sociology, and feminism have pointed out the
   symbolic nature of phallic architecture, especially large skyscrapers
   which dominate the landscape as symbols of male domination, power and
   political authority. Towers and other vertical structures may
   unintentionally or perhaps subconsciously have those connotations.
   There are many examples of modern architecture that can be interpreted
   as phallic, but very few for which the architect has specifically cited
   or admitted that meaning as an intentional aspect of the design.
   [ ]


     * 1 History and background
          + 1.1 Antiquity
          + 1.2 Modern
     * 2 Symbolism
          + 2.1 Symbols and shrines
     * 3 Buildings and structures
          + 3.1 Empire State Building
          + 3.2 Leaning Tower of Pisa
          + 3.3 Nelson's Column
          + 3.4 Colonna Mediterranea
          + 3.5 Obelisk of Luxor
          + 3.6 Oriental Pearl TV Tower
          + 3.7 Doha Tower
          + 3.8 State Capitol, Lincoln
          + 3.9 30 St Mary Axe
          + 3.10 Torre Agbar
          + 3.11 Washington Monument
          + 3.12 Ypsilanti Water Tower
          + 3.13 Christian Science Church, Dixon, Illinois
          + 3.14 Hyde Park, Hyde, Greater Manchester
          + 3.15 People's Daily Tower
          + 3.16 Hyde Park Obelisk, Sydney
     * 4 See also
     * 5 References
     * 6 External links

History and background[edit]


   Phallic Temple period (3,500 B.C. - 2,500 B.C.) items at the National
   Museum of Archaeology, Malta^[2]

   The worship of the phallus has existed since the Stone Age, and was
   particularly prevalent during the Neolithic period and the Bronze
   Age.^[citation needed]

   Phallic architecture became prominent in ancient Egypt and Greece,
   where genitalia and human sexuality received a high degree of
   attention. The ancient Greeks honored the phallus and celebrated
   phallic festivals.^[3] The Greco-Roman deity Priapus was worshiped as a
   god of fertility, depicted with a giant phallus in numerous public
   architectural pieces.^[citation needed]

   The Greeks regularly built a shrine which they called "Herm" at the
   entrance of major public buildings, homes and along roads to honor
   Hermes, messenger of the gods.^[4] The shrines typically "took the form
   of a vertical pillar topped by the bearded head of a man and from the
   surface of the pillar below the head, an erect phallus protruded".^[3]
   It is believed that they sought their inspiration from the ancient
   Egyptians and their phallic image of Min, the valley god, who was
   similarly "depicted as a standing bearded king with simplified body,
   one arm raised, the other hand holding his erect phallus."^[3]

   Herodotus, the ancient Greek historian, documented women carrying large
   phallic shaped monuments and ornaments the size of a human body in
   villages in ancient Dionysia.^[5] On the island of Delos a pillar
   supports a colossal phallus, the symbol of Dionysus. Phallus reliefs on
   buildings on such sites are also believed to have been apotropaic
   devices to ward off evil.^[6] The elaborate use of phallic architecture
   and sculpture in ancient Greek society can also be seen in sites such
   as Nea Nikomedeia in northern Greece. Archaeologists excavating the
   ancient town discovered clay sculptures of plump women with phallic
   heads and folded arms.^[7]

   Similar figurines of women with phallus heads from the Neolithic period
   have been found across Greece, Macedonia and parts of old Yugoslavia.
   The vast majority of the figurines of the Hamangia culture have
   cylindrical phallus-shaped heads without facial features, although
   some, particularly of the Aegean culture, had phallic sculptural pieces
   with phallic heads with a pinched nose and slitty eyes.^[7] In these
   parts of the ancient world, obelisk like structures resembling the
   human penis were built, often with phallic symbols, representing human
   fertility and asserting male sexuality and orgasm.^[1] Phallic
   symbolism was prevalent in the architecture of ancient Babylonia, and
   in Khametian iconography, the obelisk was considered to be symbolic of
   the phallus of the masculine earth.^[8] The obelisks of ancient Egypt
   themselves had several functions, existing both as a reference to the
   cultus of the sun and of the phallus, representing fertility and
   power.^[citation needed]
   Left: The well-endowed Priapus, the Greco-Roman god of fertility. He
   was the subject of many architectural works in the ancient world.
   Right: A phallic column in Delos

   Although phallic architecture as individual pieces was not prevalent in
   ancient Rome as it was in ancient Greece or Egypt, the Romans were
   deeply superstitious and often introduced phallus-related components as
   architectural pieces and domestic items. Archaeologists unearthing a
   site in Pompei discovered many vases, ornaments and sculptures
   unearthed revealing the preoccupation with the phallus,^[9] also
   unearthing an 18-inch terracotta phallus protruding from what was
   believed to have been a bakery with the inscription, "Hic habitat
   felicitas" (here dwells happiness), and many Romans wore phallus
   amulets to ward off the evil-eye.^[10]^[11]

   Priapic worship amongst the women of Sicily continued into the 18th
   century; worshiping phallic votive objects and kissing such offerings
   before placing them upon the altar in the churches.^[9] Fetishism with
   the phallus architecturally and in smaller implements was also
   exhibited by certain Christian sects in medieval times, such as the
   Manichaeans, and was connected with masochism and sadism, a form of
   religious flagellantism.^[5] Smaller phallic shaped monuments in the
   form of idols, even vases, rings, drinking vessels and jewellery have
   been well-documented and could be found within medieval churches of
   Left: The pyramid of Candi Sukuh of East Java, Indonesia. Right: A
   graphic depiction of a phallus entering a vagina at the temple, one of

   In Hinduism, the Hindu trimurthi represents Brahma, the creator,
   Vishnu, the preserver and Shiva, the destroyer. Shiva, the main deity
   in India, is both destroyer and is stated to also include his role of
   creation; this creation role is represented by the phallic symbol,
   known as lingam in which form he is worshiped or in the form of male
   trinity of penis and two testicles.^[12] The linga, or phallus, is a
   common feature of Hindu temples across India, engrained as reliefs or
   other forms. The Brihadeeswarar Temple of Tanjore in Tamil Nadu, built
   during the Chola Dynasty, is dedicated to Shiva, and features lingam
   between the cells; it is especially renowned for its "Hall of One
   Thousand Lingas".^[13]

   In Indonesia, the phallic lingga and feminine yoni, remain common
   symbols of harmony. The Sultan's Palace of Kasepuhan, in West Java, has
   a number of lingga-yoni carvings along its walls. According to the
   Indonesian chronicles of the Babad Tanah Jawi, Prince Puger gained the
   kingly power from God, by ingesting sperm from the phallus of the
   already-dead Sultan Amangkurat II of Mataram.^[14]^[15]

   Candi Sukuh temple of Ngancar, East Java, was built in the 10th century
   and is dedicated to Shiva. The temple has numerous reliefs graphically
   depicting sexuality and fertility including several stone depictions of
   a copulating penis and vagina.^[16] It consists of a pyramid with
   reliefs and statues at the front. Among them is a male statue clutching
   his penis, with three tortoises with flattened shells.^[16] The temple
   once had a striking 1.82 metre (5'11.5 ft) representation of lingga
   with four testicles; this is now housed in the National Museum of
   Indonesia. Phallic references were also made in Khmer architecture in
   Cambodia, and several Khmer temples depict the phallus in reliefs.

   In Africa, Ancient Malians, particularly the royals of Djenne,
   decorated their palaces with phallus like piers and columns at the
   entrance of their palaces and decorated the walls with phallus
   motifs.^[17] Similar features can be seen on the pillars of many
   temples across Africa, often interpreted by western scholars to be
   phallic symbols, but may often be more subtle and subject to varying
   interpretations.^[18] Like the ancient Egyptian pharaohs, Aksumite
   kings built temples with phallic pillars in ancient Ethiopian cities
   such as Konsu, and monolithic pillars with phallic representation have
   also been discovered in Madagascar.^[19] In ancient Maya, phallic
   architecture was rare but Uxmal in particular has a considerable number
   of phallus-like architectural pieces. It contains a temple known as the
   Temple of the Phallis and phallic sculptures and motifs.^[20]


   The Dionysus Theatre of Athens. Phallic columns can still be seen of
   the ruined Ancient Greek theatre.

   Claude Nicholas Ledoux was a major exponent of architectural
   development in the 17th century which "articulated across the tensions
   of form and ornament, symbol, and allegory, dogma, and fantasy", at a
   time when western society was oppressive and particularly sensitive to
   public displays of sexuality; blatant and graphic phallic architecture
   would have been considered an embarrassment and a shameful act.^[9] In
   his initial draft for the House of Pleasure in Chaux (a proposed ideal
   city, near the Forest of Chaux), Ledoux drew upon allegorical ideas in
   his design with the union of man and woman, a physiological
   interpretation of intercourse and penetration. Private bedrooms were
   designed to "thrust out from the circular ring of the building,
   metaphorically representing penetration, the circular ring representing
   the vaginal passage and womb of the female.^[9]

   The second revised design is said to "subliminate both elevated site
   and female gender" with a "lonely phallus", without the original
   planned animated circular ring representing the female reproductive
   organs.^[9] Ledoux drew upon phallic and sexually charged inspiration
   in other buildings which he designed. His design of Besanc,on Theatre
   for instance was fueled by the exigencies of prostitution and ancient
   sexual ritual.^[9] However, in comparison to the likes of Jean-Jacques
   Lequeu, who gained notoriety for his pornographic architectural
   concoctions, Ledoux's architectural inspiration was relatively mild,
   and he is said to have omitted towers from his designs on occasion as
   he was aware that they would be frowned upon shamefully by general
   society as a too obvious representation of the phallus; Ledoux's
   "missing erection" is explained to this effect in Jacques Lecan's
   Significance of the Missing Phalus.^[9]

   According to Oscar Reutersvaerd, the interest in neoclassical
   architecture in the 18th century was synonymous with and motivated by a
   similar interest in masculine virility.^[9] Works such as Francesco
   Colonna's Hypnerotomachia Poliphili (1467) and Giovanni Battista
   Piranesi's Campo Marzio (1762) show profoundly the ancient influence of
   phallic architecture in design and worship, and contain numerous
   illustrations of Priapic temples and architecture.^[9] Piranesi in
   particular is said to have offered a "prototype for the mysterious
   architecture of phallic worship that more closely resembles the houses
   of pleasure" in his etchings.^[9]

   He located two designs for the Bustum Caesaris Augusti, concluding that
   they were based upon sexual ritual, with "two phallic plans penetrating
   the semicircular cubicula". Piranesi believed that the purpose of the
   phallic designs were to celebrate virility and male regenerative
   power.^[9] Other commentators such as Carl August Ehrensvaerd also
   provided illustrations and analysis of Priapic temples and the meaning
   of phallic architecture.^[9] A work of note to this effect is
   Neoclassical Temple of Virility and the Buildings with a Phallic Shaped
   Plan (1977) of the Institute for Art History of the University of Lund,

   In America, especially in Chicago and New York, and numerous other
   global cities, high rise skyscrapers of phallic shape grew up in the
   20th century. Le Corbusier, the famous architect, propagated it in
   Europe in place of traditional decorative architecture. Similar
   futuristic developments took place in Italy with the initiative of
   Sant'Elia, symbolizing the triumph of man. Yet unlike those of ancient
   times which were blatant architectural representations of the phallus,
   in the West in modern times "shrines to the phallus" are more subtle,
   and may often be subject to interpretation as such; very few architects
   have specifically admitted the human phallus as a source for their
   architectural creation.^[21] The Italian Fascists were cited as having
   an obsession with phallic architecture which was rigid and
   impermeable.^[22] In the last few decades the high-rise phallic
   skyscraper has been a symbol of government quest for economic power in
   China, Hong Kong and South Korea and the other ASEAN/Pacific Rim
   nations. China fuels billions of dollars annually into high-rise office
   and residential buildings with the aim of increasing GDP, at a rate far
   greater than they can be occupied.^[23]


   Left: Vendome Column, Paris. Right: One of the many penis statues of
   Haesindang Park (Penis Park), South Korea.

   In art and architecture, acutely vertical buildings are often seen as a
   symbol of masculinity and horizontal buildings are seen as more
   feminine.^[24]^[25] The terms "phallic verticality", "phallic
   erectility" and "phallic brutality" have been referred to by
   architectural theorists, including the likes of French sociologist
   Henri Lefebvre, who argued that buildings of phallic architectural type
   metaphorically symbolize "force, male fertility, masculine
   violence".^[24]^[26] Phallic erectility "bestows a special status on
   the perpendicular, proclaiming phallocracy as the orientation of space"
   while phallic brutality "does not remain abstract, for it is the
   brutality of political power."^[26]

   Lefebvre conducted considerable research into the meaning of high-rise
   buildings.^[24] He said "The arrogant verticality of skyscrapers, and
   especially of public and state buildings, introduces a phallic or more
   precisely a phallocratic element into the visual realm; the purpose of
   this display, of this need to impress, is to convey an impression of
   authority to each spectator. Verticality and great height have ever
   been the spatial expression of potentially violent power."^[24] Sigmund
   Freud metaphorically drew a comparison between "high achievement and
   the acquisition of wealth as building monuments to our penises."^[27]

   In the 19th century, Thomas Mical argues that surrealists "capitalized
   on the phallic symbolism of monuments such as the ancient Egyptian
   obelisk from Luxor in the Place de la Concorde or the Vendome Column"
   by "supplementing these phallic structures with female
   counterparts".^[28] Jules Breton for example suggested moving the
   obelisk to La Villette abattoir and designing a large gloved hand of a
   woman holding the obelisk in a suggestive manner, and adapting the
   Vendome into a factory chimney with a nude woman climbing it.^[28]
   Auguste Bartholdi's 1870 monument Defense of Paris for instance, a
   commemoration of Leon Gambetta's escape from Paris in balloon during
   the Franco-Prussian War, was also subject to debate amongst Parisian
   artists of the late 19th century as they believed it resembled a
   testicle.^[28] Arthur Harfaux proposed turning the monument into "an
   enormous sex, the balloon forming a testicle and the phallus being
   horizontal", while Breton proposed turning it into copulating genitals,
   adding a twin balloon to form two testicles.^[28]
   Jules Breton (1827-1906), a French realist artist who was keen to
   advocate phallic architecture in late 19th century Paris.

   Contemporary scholars in architectural criticism have investigated the
   relationship between architecture and the body, sexuality, sex, power,
   and place.^[29] Feminists in particular, such as Margrit Kennedy,
   perceive high-rise phallic-like buildings on the urban landscape as
   "phallic symbols of male domination, power and rational
   instrumentality."^[30] Esther M. K. Cheung believes the form of
   monumental high-rise building which grew up in 20th century America can
   "be read as a phallic symbol of power".^[31] The present trend
   symbolises "Science and technology over nature, incorporating all the
   maleness which that with sci-fi utopias."^[32] Elizabeth Grosz,
   however, offers a counter argument to phallocentrism in urban design
   theories, saying "not so much the dominance of the phallus as the
   pervasive unacknowledged use of the male or masculine to represent the
   human. The problem, then, is not so much to eliminate as to reveal the
   masculinity inherent in the notion of the universal, the generic human,
   or the unspecified subject."^[29] Marc C. Taylor discusses phallic
   architecture and what makes a building masculine or feminine in his
   book Disfiguring: Art, Architecture, Religion.^[24]

Symbols and shrines[edit]

   Marakan'non Shrine in Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan. The phallic stones
   besides the shrine are considered symbols of fertility.

   During the modern era, many sculptors have created some public phallic
   works of art, with varying degrees of subtlety. One of these examples
   may be the statue in honor to the Carnation Revolution on the top of a
   hill in Lisbon, Portugal by the sculptor Joao Cutileiro.^[33] Perhaps
   the greatest example of a phallic cemetery is the Khalid Nabi Cemetery
   in hills of northeastern Iran near the border with Turkmenistan,
   roughly 40 miles (64 km) northeast of Gonbad-e Kavous.^[34] According
   to a popular belief, the cemetery house the tomb of a pre-Islamic
   prophet, Khalid Nabi, who was born 40 years prior to the birth of
   Muhammad, in c. 530.^[34] The ancient graveyard contains some 600
   tombstones of unknown origin, many of which are clear representations
   of the phallus; from a distance they resemble stone pegs.^[34]
   Left: Chao Mae Tuptim, Bangkok, Thailand. Right: A smaller version of
   the Kharkarin Rock, near Erdene Zuu Monastery, Mongolia.

   Phallic shrines are common in Far East Asia, especially in Buddhist
   parts of Korea and Japan where they are seen as symbols of fertility or
   prowess.^[35] In Dragon Pool Temple in Jeju City, there is a phallic
   shrine which is visited by female pilgrims who come to worship it for
   its perceived fertility blessings. The phallic stone is made from
   granite, quite small in size and white and was reportedly found in a
   field nearby by a farmer.^[35]

   In Thailand, the phallus is also considered to be a symbol of good luck
   and representative of fertility. There are numerous shrines in the
   country featuring phallic architecture. Chao Mae Tuptim shrine in
   Bangkok has over a hundred colored circumcised wooden penis statues of
   all shapes and sizes which are said to possess special cosmic powers
   and endow good fortune and fertility on anybody coming into contact
   with them.^[36]^[37]

   Kharkhorin Rock, located in Oevoerkhangai Province of Mongolia, is a
   massive statue of a penis raised on a platform on the steppe near
   Erdene Zuu Monastery. The statue has dual functions; primarily it is a
   reminder to the monks to remain celibate, but it is also a symbol of
   fertility and human life.^[38] A smaller statue of a phallus is nearer
   the monastery. Haesindang Park (also known as "Penis Park") in Gangwon
   Province of South Korea, located about 20 kilometres (12 mi) south of
   Samcheok, is a nature park which contains a number of erect statues. A
   tragic legend shrouds them in that a virgin was once swept out to sea
   and drowned, unable to be saved by her lover. The townspeople were
   devastated and helpless, and a curse appeared to have been cast over
   them, ruining the local fishing industry. One day, a local fisherman
   relieved himself in the sea and miraculously the fishing industry
   revived. He discovered that her restless spirit could be appeased in
   such a manner, so the townsfolk compensated for the woman's inability
   to consummate beyond the grave by placing sexually potent phallic
   statues in view of the shore.^[39] The statues range in size and
   styles; some have faces on them and are more animated in appearance and
   more colorful, but others are exact depictions of the human penis.

   In some Asian countries such as Bhutan, many have a belief that a
   phallus brings good luck and drives away evil spirits. Phallus symbols
   are routinely painted outside walls of the new houses and carved wooden
   phalluses are hung (sometimes crossed by a design of sword or dagger)
   outside, on the eves of the new homes, at the four corners.^[40] On a
   road drive from Paro airport to Thimphu explicit paintings of phalluses
   are a common sight on the white-washed walls of homes, shops and
   eateries.^[40] In the Chimi Lhakhang monastery, the shrine dedicated to
   Drupka Kinley, several wooden penises are used to bless people who
   visit the monastery on pilgrimage seeking blessings to bear a child or
   for welfare of their children. The glaringly displayed phallus in the
   monastery is a brown wooden piece with a silver handle, a religious
   relic considered to possess divine powers and hence used for blessing
   the spiritually oriented people. It is also said to prevent quarrels
   among family members in the houses which are painted with these

Buildings and structures[edit]

   Left: Empire State Building, New York City. Right: The Leaning Tower of

  Empire State Building[edit]

   The 102-story Empire State Building, located in New York City, is one
   of the city's most famous landmarks, and is generally thought of as an
   American cultural icon. Cited by Valerie Briginshaw as a symbol of
   American pride and "the ultimate sign of American phallic power", it
   was inaugurated on 31 May 1931.^[41]^[42]

   Designed in the Art Deco style, it has a roof height of 1,250 feet (381
   meters), and with its antenna spire included, it stands a total of
   1,454 ft (443.2 m) high. It stood as the world's tallest building for
   40 years, from its completion in 1931 until construction of the World
   Trade Center's North Tower was completed in 1972. After the World Trade
   Center was destroyed on September 11, 2001, it remained the tallest
   building in New York City for 13 years until the One World Trade Center
   was completed. Numerous people have mentioned its similarities in
   appearance to the phallus, with its "tall and glinting"

  Leaning Tower of Pisa[edit]

   The Leaning Tower of Pisa in Pisa, Italy, dating from around 1173, has
   long suffered from structural problems. The tower is eight stories high
   at 55.86 metres (183.3 ft) and before restoration work from 1990 leaned
   5.5 degrees. It currently leans about 4 degrees but due to foundation
   problems it continues to sink about 1mm annually. The resemblance of
   the tower to a penis has seen the "Leaning Tower of Pisa" become a
   sexual slang term for a half erect penis.^[45]

  Nelson's Column[edit]

   Nelson's Column, a monument to Admiral Horatio Nelson, was erected by a
   grateful nation between 1840 and 1843 to commemorate Nelson's victory
   at the Battle of Trafalgar. However the Nelson Memorial Committee ran
   out of money, having only raised -L-20,485 in public
   subscriptions.^[46] The column is Corinthian with a granite shaft.^[47]
   In his poem A Ballad of the Good Lord Nelson, Lawrence Durrell included
   the multiply allusive lines "Now stiff on a pillar with a phallic
   air/Nelson stylites in Trafalgar Square/Reminds the British what once
   they were."^[48]

  Colonna Mediterranea[edit]

   Colonna Mediterranea in Luqa, Malta

   Colonna Mediterranea is a monumental column in Luqa, Malta. It has been
   described by its artist Paul Vella Critien as an "Egyptian symbol".
   However at a glance it could be observed to look similar to a large
   penile, and therefore was largely described to be a "phallic monument".
   The monument has managed to attract several international media
   coverage in specific before and during the visit of Pope Benedict XVI
   to Malta as the pope mobile, carrying the papacy, had been planned and
   passed by it. Similarly the same artist has created another monumental
   column, the Kolonna Eterna, which was also described as being phallic
   by critics.^[49]^[50]^[51]^[52]

  Obelisk of Luxor[edit]

   The Obelisk of Luxor, which stands in the Place de la Concorde of
   Paris, France, was given to the French by the Egyptians in the 1800s.
   The 23-meter (75-foot) obelisk originally stood at the front of Luxor
   Temple, honoring Ramses II, pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt.
   According to Michael D. Garval, the French perceived the obelisk as
   "prodigiously phallic" from the moment it arrived.^[53]

  Oriental Pearl TV Tower[edit]

   The Oriental Pearl TV Tower, located in Pudong Park in Lujiazui,
   Shanghai, China, is the world's third tallest TV and radio tower at 468
   metres (1,535 ft), the tallest such building in Asia. The tower houses
   restaurants, theaters, a conference hall, and a hotel and is a
   significant tourist attraction in the city. The tower has been met a
   mixed reception, however. The New York Times described it as a "great
   phallic monster of truly monumental ugliness, a bit like an enormous
   asparagus with a silver ball on top."^[54] The long steel column tower
   is considered by some to be proof of the city's phallic worship, and
   that such skyscrapers indicative of wealth are an increasing
   aphrodisiac of the materialist in Chinese cities.^[55]

  Doha Tower[edit]

   The Doha Tower, formerly called the Burj Doha or Burj Qatar was
   designed by French architect Jean Nouvel. In 2004, the project was
   first called the "High Rise Office Building".^[56] Following completion
   in 2012, it was originally called the "Burj Doha" by its owner, H. E.
   Sheikh Saud bin Muhammed Al Thani. The public has noted the building's
   "phallic form",^[57]^[58] suggestive of what Nouvel calls a "fully
   assumed virility."^[59]

  State Capitol, Lincoln[edit]

   The State Capitol building of Lincoln, Nebraska has been cited as the
   "apex" of phallic architecture.^[60] At 15 stories and 400 feet (121 m)
   tall, it is the second-tallest U.S. statehouse, surpassed only by the
   34-story Louisiana State Capitol.^[61] It is the tallest building in
   Lincoln,^[62] the third-tallest in the state, and also the heaviest
   Capitol building in North America. The building was designed by Bertram
   Grosvenor Goodhue, who drew upon Classical and Gothic architectural
   traditions.^[63] It was constructed between 1922 and 1932, of Indiana
   limestone, with a golden dome.^[63] The building is nicknamed "The
   Phallus of the Plains" for its phallus-like appearance.^[64]

  30 St Mary Axe[edit]

   30 St Mary Axe opened in London in April 2004. Designed by Norman
   Foster, the 180 metres (590 ft) structure, London's first
   environmentally sustainable tall building using recycled and recyclable
   materials, has been compared to the phallus and a gherkin, which also
   is a slang term for "small penis"; its nicknames include Gherkin, the
   Erotic Gherkin, Towering Innuendo and the Crystal
   Phallus.^[65]^[66]^[67] Also likened to a "phallic fat cigar", the
   building has been cited as a "crude anatomical metaphor", yet has
   become one of the London's most iconic buildings.^[66] Cabinet voted it
   the "Best Uncircumcised Building in the World".^[67]

  Torre Agbar[edit]

   Left: Torre Agbar, Barcelona, Spain. Right: Washington Monument,
   Washington, D.C., United States

   The Torre Agbar is a 38-story skyscraper located in the Plac,a de les
   Glories Catalanes of the Poblenou neighborhood of Barcelona, Spain.
   Designed by Jean Nouvel, it is named after its owners, the Agbar Group,
   a holding company whose interests include the Barcelona water company
   Aiguees de Barcelona. An example of high-tech architecture in the city,
   its design combines a number of different architectural concepts,
   resulting in a striking structure built with reinforced concrete,
   covered with a facade of glass, and over 4,500 window openings cut out
   of the structural concrete. The building stands out on the skyline of
   Barcelona; it is the third tallest building in the city, standing at
   144.44 m (473.88 ft), with an area of over 50,000 square metres, of
   which 30,000 are offices. 2,500 LED bulbs cause the tower to change
   color at night.^[68] It was officially opened by the King of Spain on
   16 September 2005. Nouvel claims it to be inspired by a geyser and the
   nearby mountain of Montserrat, although he does note its phallic
   appearance.^[69] Although many draw comparisons with the phallus,
   locals refer to the structure as el supositorio (the suppository), a
   drug delivery system that is inserted into the rectum or

  Washington Monument[edit]

   The Washington Monument in Washington D.C. is often seen as a prime
   example of phallic architecture and American masculinity.^[71] The
   towering monument, made of marble, granite, and bluestone gneiss, it is
   both the world's tallest stone structure and the world's tallest
   obelisk, standing
   555 feet 5+1/8 inches (169.294 m) according to the National Park
   Service.^[72] Construction of the monument began in 1848, was halted
   from 1854 to 1877, and was completed in 1884. In a Journal review,
   dated 17 October 1911, Arnold Bennett said of the monument, "Saw
   Washington monument. Phallic. Appalling. A national catastrophe - only
   equalled by the Albert Memorial. Tiny doll-like people waiting to go
   into it."^[73] Dan Burstein says of it, "Speaking of sex symbols, there
   is no more phallic symbol in existence than the Washington Monument,
   and the Capitol dome can be viewed as breastlike."^[74] James Webb used
   a metaphor to praise the "uplift[ing]" power of the Washington Monument
   as a white phallus, "piercing the air like a bayonet".^[75] In the
   futuristic film Hardwired, set in the United States where everything
   noteworthy is commercialized, the Washington Monument is used as a
   giant Trojan condoms billboard.

  Ypsilanti Water Tower[edit]

   Ypsilanti Water Tower in Ypsilanti, Michigan, winner of the "Most
   Phallic Building contest"

   Ypsilanti Water Tower is a historic water tower in Ypsilanti, Michigan,
   United States, listed as a National Register of Historic Places
   building in 1981. The tower was designed by William R. Coats and
   constructed as part of an elaborate city waterworks project that began
   in 1889.^[76] Located on the highest point in Ypsilanti, the tower was
   completed in 1890 at a cost of $21,435.63. Today the tower is
   frequently joked about for its phallic shape and has earned the
   nickname "Brick Dick".^[77]^[78]

   It has become a well-known landmark in Ypsilanti, and due to the
   building's shape and location, the tower is frequently used by
   residents as a point for providing directions for visitors and
   residents. Iggy Pop said of it in a 1996 interview, "The most famous
   thing in Ypsilanti is this water tower made out of brick, about 175
   years old. It looks like this big penis."^[79]

   The World's Most Phallic Building contest was a contest held in 2003 by
   Cabinet magazine to find the building which most resembled a human
   phallus.^[80] The contest originated when writer Jonathan Ames drew the
   ire of Slate readers by claiming, in a diary that was later published
   in his book I Love You More Than You Know,^[81] that the Williamsburg
   Bank Building in Brooklyn, New York City, New York, was the world's
   most phallic. This led Cabinet magazine to initiate a search of its own
   to find which building was truly the "world's most phallic".^[82]
   Cities and readers subsequently poured in their views and staked their
   claims to the magazine's editors. After months of entries and
   discussion, the Ypsilanti Water Tower was announced as the
   winner,^[83]^[84] although the winner of a readers' poll was the
   Florida State Capitol building in Tallahassee.^[85] Another notable
   nominee was the Torre Agbar of Barcelona.^[86]

  Christian Science Church, Dixon, Illinois[edit]

   The Christian Science Dixon church in Dixon, Illinois strongly
   resembles a penis when viewed from the air. The church, however, claims
   it was tastefully designed around an old oak tree and declared that "We
   didn't design it to be seen as what they're seeing. And we didn't
   design it to be seen from above."^[87]

   Left: Hyde Park Obelisk, Sydney. Right: Giant condom covering the
   Obelisk in November 2014

  Hyde Park, Hyde, Greater Manchester[edit]

   In 2012, a beehive metal sculpture by Thompson Dagnall in Hyde, Greater
   Manchester, was criticized by the council for its phallic appearance,
   having been installed adjacent to the children's play area in Hyde
   Park. Although Dagnall was paid -L-3,500 a week for his efforts,
   council workers modified the structure by stumping it and moved it to
   another part of the park.^[88]

  People's Daily Tower[edit]

   A new headquarters for the People's Daily newspaper has been under
   construction since 2013^[update] and is slated for completion in 2014.
   In May 2013, China attempted to censor jokes about its phallic

  Hyde Park Obelisk, Sydney[edit]

   The 22-metre (72 ft) high Hyde Park Obelisk, located in Hyde Park,
   Sydney Australia at the intersection of Elizabeth Street and Bathurst
   Street, is both a former sewer ventshaft and a notable landmark in the
   Sydney CBD.^[92] Its phallic appearance was emphasised on 7 November
   2014, when the AIDS Council of NSW (ACON) temporarily installed a giant
   condom over the Obelisk as part of a HIV awareness campaign. The
   installation generated a lot of media interest--including many phallic
   innuendos^[93]^[94]^[95]--and drew the ire of the Australian Christian

See also[edit]

     * icon Architecture portal

     * Phallic processions
     * Phallus paintings in Bhutan


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