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Franc,oise Dolto

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   French pediatrician & psychoanalyst
   Franc,oise Dolto
   Franc,oise Marette
   (1908-11-06)November 6, 1908
   Paris, France
   Died August 25, 1988(1988-08-25) (aged 79)
   Paris, France
   Resting place Bourg-la-Reine
   Nationality French
   Spouse(s) Boris Dolto
   Children 3, including Carlos
   Scientific career
   Fields Pediatrics, psychoanalysis

   Franc,oise Dolto (French: [dOlto]; November 6, 1908 - August 25, 1988)
   was a French pediatrician and psychoanalyst.

   [ ]


     * 1 Biography
     * 2 Psychoanalysis
     * 3 Death
     * 4 Bibliography
          + 4.1 Secondary literature
          + 4.2 Critical literature
     * 5 See also
     * 6 References


   Born as Franc,oise Marette, she was the daughter of an affluent
   far-right royalist family of traditional Catholics in Paris. Her
   Alsatian mother, Suzanne Demmler, was the daughter of an engineer, and
   Henri Marette, her father, was also a Polytechnic engineer who became
   an industrialist. She was the fourth child of a family of seven. Her
   brother Jacques Marette (1922-1984), was French Postmaster (minister of
   Posts and Telecommunications) from 1962 to 1967.

   An Irish nurse frequently took care of her when she was a baby; her
   parents then had to learn to speak English to get her to smile. Her
   parents fired the nurse when she was 8 months old. Dolto's very
   traditional upbringing, which Elisabeth Roudinesco described as "very
   Catholic, extreme right-wing", reflected the values of Charles Maurras.

   Her personal tutor was trained in the methods of Friedrich Froebel.
   When she was eight her uncle and godfather Pierre Demmler died in World
   War I. When she was twelve, she was very affected by the death of her
   older sister Jacqueline, her mother's favorite child. Her mother sank
   into a depression and accused her of not praying hard enough for her
   sister's life. Dolto's mother felt that a girl had no other prospects
   than marriage and therefore forbade her to pursue her studies. At
   sixteen she had to confront her mother, who did not want her to pass
   her baccalaureate because she would then not be able to get married.
   Nevertheless, Dolto attended the Lycee Moliere in Paris where she
   graduated in philosophy in 1924-1925. In 1930 she obtained a nursing
   degree. A year later, she began her medical studies with her brother
   Philip, "paying for her studies with the money she earns".^[1]

   Dolto was named by Michel Foucault as one of the prominent signatories
   of the 1977 French petition against age of consent laws.^[2]

   Franc,oise Dolto was the mother of Carlos (1943-2008), a singer,
   Gregoire (1944-), an engineer, and Catherine (1946-).


   In 1932, Marc Schlumberger [fr] introduced Dolto to psychoanalyst Rene
   Laforgue, who had already begun to treat her brother Philip a year
   earlier. She participated thereby in the beginnings of French
   Freudianism. At the end of February 1934, she began a three-year
   analysis with Laforgue, which had a major impact on her life,^[3]
   helping to free her of her neurosis - of her education, her origin, and
   her depressive mother. Laforgue found that Dolto had an aptitude for
   analysis, and advised her to become a psychoanalyst, something which
   she at first rejected in favor of devoting herself to medicine.

   During her medical training, working under Dr. Georges Heuyer, she met
   Sophie Morgenstern, who was the first to practice psychoanalysis with
   children in France, and who would subsequently be a mentor for her.^[4]
   She listened to the sick children who came to her for treatment, Dolto
   began (with the encouragement of Edouard Pichon) to specialise in child
   psychology, as a psychoanalytic pediatrician.^[5] Her patients were
   mostly children with psychoses, with whom she began to develop her own
   idiosyncratic kind of treatment.^[6]

   Her speciality was learning about the early mental stages of babies and
   children, notably their first experiences and methods of communication
   through their body. She emphasized the physical aspects of the
   mother-baby dyad, and stressed the importance of observation and
   understanding of the means of communication used by children with
   psychological problems, or learning and social disabilities. Her work
   on the unconscious body image - on the way children have a
   body-language before actual language - has been especially
   influential,^[7] being developed by, among others, Maud Mannoni.
   Recently her work was translated into English by Francoise

   Dolto was a close friend and ally of Jacques Lacan, who she accompanied
   into the "Ecole Freudienne de Paris". She considered that "it was among
   those analysed by Lacan that I found those best able to understand
   children and...ready to understand the needs of a child, even a very
   young one, as a subject with a desire to express".^[9]

   Dolto was opposed to abortion law,^[10] although in 1942 she
   collaborated with eugenics proponent Alexis Carrel.^[11]


   Grave of Franc,oise Dolto

   Dolto contracted pulmonary fibrosis in 1984. She died on 25 August 1988
   and was buried in the cemetery at Bourg-la-Reine alongside her husband
   Boris Dolto. This is also the burial place of their son, the singer
   Carlos, who died in 2008. On her tomb stone is inscribed: "Have no


     * Psychanalyse et pediatrie, medical thesis, 1971
     * Le Cas Dominique, Editions du Seuil (ed. du Seuil), Paris, 1971;
       engl. Dominique: Analysis of an Adolescent, Souvenir Press, 1974
     * L'Evangile au risque de la psychanalyse (interviewed by Gerard
       Severin, philosopher, theologian, psychanalyst), ed. Jean-Pierre
       Delarge [fr], 1977
     * Au jeu du desir, ed. du Seuil, Paris, 1981
     * Seminaire de psychanalyse d'enfants (coop. Louis Caldagues), ed. du
       Seuil, Paris, 1982, ISBN 2-02-006274-7
     * Sexualite feminine, ed. Scarabee/A. M. Metailie, 1982
     * L'image inconsciente du corps, ed. du Seuil, Paris, 1984.

   ISBN 2-02-018302-1

     Seminaire de psychanalyse d'enfants (coop. Jean-Franc,ois de
   Sauverzac), ed. du Seuil, Paris, 1985, ISBN 2-02-008980-7

     Solitude, ed. Vertiges, Paris, 1985, ISBN 2-86896-026-X

     La Cause des enfants, ed. Robert Laffont, Paris, 1985,
   ISBN 2-221-04285-9

     Enfances, Paris, 1986

     Libido feminine, ed. Carrere, Paris, 1987

     L'Enfant du miroir (with Juan David Nasio), ed. Rivages, Paris, 1987,
   ISBN 2-86930-056-5

     La Cause des adolescents, ed. Robert Laffont, Paris, 1988

     Quand les parents se separent (coop. Ines de Angelino), ed. du Seuil,
   Paris, 1988, ISBN 2-02-010298-6; engl. When Parents Separate, David R
   Godine Pub, 1997

     L'Echec scolaire, ed. Vertiges du Nord, 1989

     Autoportrait d'une psychanalyste, ed. du Seuil, Paris, 1989

     Paroles pour adolescents ou le complexe du homard, ed. Hattier, 1989

     Lorsque l'enfant parait, ed. du Seuil, Paris, 1990

     Les Etapes majeures de l'enfance, ed. Gallimard, Paris, 1994

     Les Chemins de l'education, ed. Gallimard, Paris, 1994

     La Difficulte de vivre, ed. Gallimard, Paris, 1995

     Tout est langage, ed. Gallimard, Paris, 1995

     Le sentiment de soi : aux sources de l'image et du corps, ed.
   Gallimard, Paris, 1997

     Le Feminin, ed. Gallimard, Paris, 1998

     La vague et l'ocean : seminaire sur les pulsions de mort (1970-1971),
   ed. Gallimard, Paris, 2003

     Lettres de jeunesse : correspondance, 1913-1938, ed. Gallimard,
   Paris; revized and augmented in 2003, ISBN 2-07-073261-4

     Une vie de correspondances : 1938-1988, ed. Gallimard, Paris, 2005,
   ISBN 2-07-074256-3

     Une psychanalyste dans la cite. L'aventure de la Maison verte, ed.
   Gallimard, Paris, 2009, ISBN 978-2-07-012257-8

  Secondary literature[edit]

     * Jean-Franc,ois de Sauverzac, Franc,oise Dolto itineraire d'une
       psychanalyste, ed. Aubier, 1993, pocket edition: Flammarion 2008,

   ISBN 2-08-121798-8

     Jean-Claude Liaudet, Dolto expliquee aux parents, ed. L'Archipel,
   Paris, 1998. Traductions : A crianc,a explicada aos pais [Segundo
   Dolto], ed. Pergaminho, Cascais (Portugal), 2000 ; Dolto para padres,
   Plaza & Janes editores, Barcelona (Espagne), 2000

     Bernard Martino, Le bebe est une personne, ed. Balland, Paris, 1985

     Franc,oise Dolto, aujourd'hui presente, in Actes du colloque de
   l'Unesco, pp. 14-17 janvier 1999, ed. Gallimard, Paris, 2000

     Catherine Dolto, Il y a 10 ans la psychanalyste des enfants
   disparaissait Catherine Dolto-Tolitch parle de l'apres Dolto, Ed. Lien
   social, Numero 467, 17 decembre 1998.

     Theory and Practise in Child Psychoanalysis: An Introduction to
   Francoise Dolto's Work, ed. by Guy Hall, Francoise Hivernel, Sian
   Morgan, Karnac Books, 2009, ISBN 1-85575-574-2

     Rene-Jean Bouyer: Les Memoires d'un bebe : Un siecle d'education de
   l'enfant de Pasteur `a Dolto, Jean-Claude Gawsewitch, 2010,
   ISBN 2-35013-232-3

  Critical literature[edit]

     * Guy Baret, Comment rater l'education de son enfant avec Franc,oise
       Dolto. Ed. Ramsay, 2003
     * Le livre noir de la psychanalyse. Vivre, penser et aller mieux sans
       Freud. direction by Catherine Meyer, edition Les Arenes, Paris,
     * Daniela Lumbroso, Franc,oise Dolto, la vie d'une femme libre,
       edition Plon, Paris, 2007
     * Didier Pleux :
          + Generation Dolto, editions Odile Jacob, Paris, 2008
          + Franc,oise Dolto, la deraison pure., Preface by Michel Onfray.
            Editions Autrement, Collection << Universites populaires et
            Cie >>, 2013
          + La Revolution du divan: Pour une psychologie existentielle.
            Editions Odile Jacob, 2015
     * Sabine Gritt Un foetus mal leche.Trois ans avec Dolto., editions
       sciences humaines, 2015

See also[edit]

     * Juliette Favez-Boutonnier


    1. ^ Elisabeth Roudinesco, Histoire de la psychanalyse en France,
       Paris, Seuil, 1986, p. 169.
    2. ^ Sexual Morality and the Law, Chapter 16 of Politics, Philosophy,
       Culture -Interviews and Other Writings 1977-1984. Edited by
       Lawrence D. Krizman. New York/London: 1990, Routledge,
       ISBN 0-415-90149-9, p.275
    3. ^ E. Roudinesco, Jacques Lacan (2005) p. 235
    4. ^ Elisabeth Roudinesco et Michel Plon, , Paris, Fayard, 2011, p.
    5. ^ E. Roudinesco, Jacques Lacan (2005) p. 237-8
    6. ^ Elisabeth Roudinesco, Histoire de la Psychoanalyse en France, ed.
       du Seuil, Paris, 1986, Vol. 2, pp.169-170.
    7. ^ Dolto
    8. ^ Dolto, Francoise (2013). Psychoanalysis and Paediatrics. Key
       Psychoanalytical concepts with sixteen Clinical Observations of
       Children. Karnac, London. p. 239. ISBN 978-1855758124.
    9. ^ Quoted in E. Roudinesco, Jacques Lacan (2005) p. 237-8
   10. ^ Franc,oise Dolto, Les retentissements imperceptibles de
       l'avortement, << Sexualite feminine, libido, erotisme,
       frigidite >>, Livre de Poche, p. 349-357
   11. ^ Joy Damousi et Mariano Ben Plotkin, Psychoanalysis and Politics:
       Histories of Psychoanalysis Under Conditions of Restricted
       Political Freedom, Oxford University Press, 2012, pages 42-43
   12. ^ Guillerault, Gerard (2008). Comprendre Dolto: Une ethique
       positive du desir. Armand Colin. p. 38.


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