en.wikipedia.org, 2022-12-08 | Prima pagină
Copiat de la web.archive.org, cu Lynx.
   #alternate Edit this page Wikipedia (en)

Religious abuse

   From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
   Jump to navigation Jump to search
   Abuse administered under the guise of religion

   Religious abuse is abuse administered under the guise of religion,
   including harassment or humiliation, which may result in psychological
   trauma. Religious abuse may also include misuse of religion for
   selfish, secular, or ideological ends such as the abuse of a clerical
   [ ]


     * 1 Psychological abuse
     * 2 Against children
     * 3 Physical abuse
     * 4 Survivors
     * 5 Religious violence
          + 5.1 Human sacrifice
          + 5.2 Initiation rites
          + 5.3 Modern practices
          + 5.4 Witch-hunts
          + 5.5 Psychohistorical explanation
     * 6 Spiritual abuse
          + 6.1 Background
          + 6.2 Characteristics
          + 6.3 Research and examples
     * 7 See also
     * 8 References
     * 9 Cited sources
     * 10 Further reading

Psychological abuse[edit]

   One specific meaning of the term religious abuse refers to
   psychological manipulation and harm inflicted on a person by using the
   teachings of their religion. This is perpetrated by members of the same
   or similar faith and includes the use of a position of authority within
   the religion.^[2] It is most often directed at children and emotionally
   vulnerable adults, and motivations behind such abuse vary, but can be
   either well-intentioned or malicious.^[1]

   Even well-intentioned religious abuse can have long-term psychological
   consequences, such as the victim developing phobias or long-term
   depression. They may have a sense of shame that persists even after
   they leave the religion. A person can also be manipulated into avoiding
   a beneficial action (such as a medical treatment) or to engage in a
   harmful behavior.^[1]

   In his book Religious Abuse, pastor Keith Wright describes an example
   of such abuse. When he was a child, his Christian Scientist mother
   became very ill and eventually was convinced to seek medical treatment
   at an inpatient facility. Members of her church went to the treatment
   center to convince her to trust prayer rather than treatment, and to
   leave. She died shortly thereafter. While the church members may not
   have had any malicious intent, their use of their religion's teachings
   to manipulate Wright's mother ultimately resulted in her death.^[1]

   A more recent study among 200 university students has shown that 12.5%
   of students reported being victimized by at least one form of
   Religious/Ritual Abuse (RA). The study which was published in the
   Journal of Interpersonal Violence, showed that religious/ritual abuse
   may result in mental health issues such as dissociative disorders.^[3]

Against children[edit]

   Religiously-based psychological abuse of children can involve using
   teachings to subjugate children through fear, or indoctrinating the
   child in the beliefs of their particular religion whilst suppressing
   other perspectives. Psychologist Jill Mytton describes this as crushing
   the child's chance to form a personal morality and belief system; it
   makes them utterly reliant on their religion and/or parents, and they
   never learn to reflect critically on information they receive.
   Similarly, the use of fear and a judgmental environment (such as the
   concept of Hell) to control the child can be traumatic.^[4]

Physical abuse[edit]

   Physical abuse in a religious context can take the form of beatings,
   illegal confinement, neglect, near drowning or even murder in the
   belief that the child is possessed by evil spirits, practicing sorcery
   or witchcraft, or has committed some kind of sin that warrants
   punishment. Such extreme cases are, though, rare.

   In 2012, the United Kingdom's Department for Children, Schools and
   Families instituted a new action plan to investigate the issue of
   faith-based abuse after several high-profile murders, such as that
   Kristy Bamu.^[5] Over a term of 10 years, Scotland Yard conducted 83
   investigations into allegations of abuse with faith-based elements and
   feared there were even more that were unreported.^[6]


   Survivors of religious abuse can develop symptoms of post traumatic
   stress disorder (PTSD) in response to their religiously abusive
   experiences.^[7] Dr. Marlene Winell, a psychologist and former
   fundamentalist, coined the term "Religious Trauma Syndrome" (RTS) in a
   2011 article she wrote for the British Association for Cognitive and
   Behavioural Psychotherapies.^[8] Winell describes RTS as "the condition
   experienced by people who are struggling with leaving an authoritarian,
   dogmatic religion and coping with the damage of indoctrination".^[8]

   In the article, Winell identifies four categories of dysfunction:
   cognitive, affective, functional, and social/cultural.^[8]
     * Cognitive: Confusion, difficulty with decision-making and critical
       thinking, dissociation, identity confusion
     * Affective: Anxiety, panic attacks, depression, suicidal ideation,
       anger, grief, guilt, loneliness, lack of meaning
     * Functional: Sleep and eating disorders, nightmares, sexual
       dysfunction, substance abuse, somatization
     * Social/cultural: Rupture of family and social network, employment
       issues, financial stress, problems acculturating into society,
       interpersonal dysfunction

   It is important to note that these symptoms can occur for people who
   have simply participated in dogmatic expressions of religion such as
   fundamentalism. It is easy to validate traumatic responses to religious
   abuse in more extreme cases such as authoritarian cult membership,
   clergy sexual abuse, or mind control tactics used to extremes like the
   mass suicide at Jonestown. However, individuals can experience chronic
   religious abuse in the subtle mind-control mechanics of fundamentalism
   that leads to trauma.^[9] ^[10] While many extreme traumatic
   experiences associated with religion can cause simple PTSD, scholars
   are now arguing that chronic abuse through mind control tactics used in
   fundamentalist settings, whether intentional or not, can induce C-PTSD
   or developmental trauma.^[11]^[12]

   Exposure therapy or staying in religiously abusive settings may not be
   conducive to healing for survivors of religious abuse.^[13] Healing can
   come through support groups, therapy, and psychoeducation.^[14]
   Survivors have many opportunities to recover and live vibrant lives
   after they leave religiously abusive settings.

Religious violence[edit]

   Main article: Religious violence

   Religious violence and extremism (also called communal violence^[15])
   is a term that covers all phenomena where religion is either the
   subject or object of violent behavior.^[16]

Human sacrifice[edit]

   Main articles: Human sacrifice, Child sacrifice, and Child sacrifice in
   pre-Columbian cultures

   Human sacrifice (sometimes called ritual murder), has been practiced on
   a number of different occasions and in many different cultures. The
   various rationales behind human sacrifice are the same that motivate
   religious sacrifice in general. Human sacrifice is typically intended
   to bring good fortune and to pacify the gods. Fertility was another
   common theme in ancient religious sacrifices.

   Human sacrifice may be a ritual practiced in a stable society, and may
   even be conducive to enhance societal unity (see: Sociology of
   religion), both by creating a bond unifying the sacrificing community,
   and in combining human sacrifice and capital punishment, by removing
   individuals that have a negative effect on societal stability
   (criminals, religious heretics, foreign slaves or prisoners of war).
   However, outside of civil religion, human sacrifice may also result in
   outbursts of blood frenzy and mass killings that destabilize society.

   Archaeology has uncovered physical evidence of child sacrifice at
   several locations.^[17] Some of the best attested examples are the
   diverse rites which were part of the religious practices in Mesoamerica
   and the Inca Empire.^[18]^[19]^[20] Psychologists Alice Miller and
   Robert Godwin, psychohistorian Lloyd deMause and other advocates of
   children's rights have written about pre-Columbian sacrifice within the
   framework of child abuse.^[21]^[22]^[23]

   Plutarch (c.46-120 AD) mentions the Carthaginian's ritual burning of
   small children, as do Tertullian, Orosius, Diodorus Siculus and Philo.
   Livy and Polybius do not. The Hebrew Bible also mentions what appears
   to be child sacrifice practised at a place called the Tophet (roasting
   place) by the Canaanites, and by some Israelites.^[24]

   Children were thrown to the sharks in ancient Hawaii.^[25]

   Sacrificial victims were often infants. "The slaughtering of newborn
   babies may be considered a common event in many cultures" including the
   Eskimo, the Polynesians, the Ancient Egyptians, the Chinese, the
   Scandinavians, and various indigenous peoples of Africa, the Americas
   and Australia.^[26]

Initiation rites[edit]

   Main article: Initiation rite

   Artificial deformation of the skull predates written history and dates
   back as far as 45,000 BCE, as evidenced by two Neanderthal skulls found
   in Shanidar Cave.^[27] It was usually started just after birth and
   continued until the desired shape was achieved. It may have played a
   key role in Egyptian and Mayan societies.^[28]

   In China some boys were castrated, with both the penis and scrotum
   cut.^[29] Other ritual actions have been described by anthropologists.
   Geza Roheim wrote about initiation rituals performed by Australian
   natives in which adolescent initiates were forced to drink blood.^[30]
   Ritual rape of young virgins have been part of shamanistic

Modern practices[edit]

   In some tribes rituals of Papua New Guinea, an elder "picks out a sharp
   stick of cane and sticks it deep inside a boy's nostrils until he
   bleeds profusely into the stream of a pool, an act greeted by loud war
   cries."^[32] Afterwards, when boys are initiated into puberty and
   manhood, they are expected to perform fellatio on the elders. "Not all
   initiates will participate in this ceremonial homosexual activity but,
   about five days later, several will have to perform fellatio several

   Ritual murders are committed in Brazil,^[33] the USA,^[34] and
   Singapore (See Toa Payoh ritual murders).

   See also List of satanic ritual abuse allegations


   Further information: Witch-hunt

   Further information: Witchcraft accusations against children in Africa

   To this day, witch hunts, trials and accusations are still a real
   danger in some parts of the world. Trials result in violence against
   men, women and children, including murder.^[35] In The Gambia, about
   1,000 people accused of being witches were locked in government
   detention centers in March 2009, being beaten, forced to drink an
   unknown hallucinogenic potion, and confess to witchcraft, according to
   Amnesty International.^[36]^[37] In Tanzania thousands of elderly
   Tanzanian women have been strangled, knifed to death and burned alive
   over the last two decades after being denounced as witches.^[38]
   Ritualistic abuse may also involve children accused of, and punished
   for, being purported witches in some Central African areas. A child may
   be blamed for the illness of a relative, for example.^[39] Other
   examples include Ghana, where alleged witches were banished to refugee
   camps,^[40] and the beating and isolation of children accused of being
   witches in Angola.^[41]^[42]^[43]

  Psychohistorical explanation[edit]

   Main article: Psychohistorical views on infanticide

   A small number of academics subscribe to the theory of psychohistory
   and attribute the abusive rituals to the psychopathological projection
   of the perpetrators, especially the parents.^[21]^[22]

   This psychohistorical model claims that practices of tribal societies
   sometimes included incest and the sacrifice, mutilation, rape and
   torture of children, and that such activities were culturally

Spiritual abuse[edit]

   Spiritual abuse includes:
     * Psychological abuse and emotional abuse
     * Physical abuse including physical injury (e.g., tatbir) and
       deprivation of sustenance.
     * Sexual abuse
     * Any act by deeds or words that shame or diminish the dignity of a
     * Intimidation and the requirement to submit to a spiritual authority
       without any right to dissent.
     * Unreasonable control of a person's basic right to exercise freewill
       in spiritual or natural matters.
     * False accusations and repeated criticism by labeling a person as,
       for example, disobedient, rebellious, lacking faith, demonized,
       apostate, an enemy of the church or of a deity.
     * Isolationism, separation, disenfranchisement or estrangement from
       family and friends outside the group due to cult-religious or
       spiritual or indigenous beliefs.
     * Esotericism, hidden agendas and requirements revealed to members
       only as they successfully advance through various stages of a
     * Enforced practice of spiritualism, mysticism, or other ideologies
       peculiar to members of that religion.^[46]
     * Financial exploitation or enslavement of adherents.^[46]


   The term spiritual abuse was purportedly coined in the late twentieth
   century to refer to alleged abuse of authority by church leaders,^[47]
   albeit some scholars and historians would dispute that claim, citing
   prior literary appearances of the term in literature on religion and
   psychology. Lambert defines spiritual abuse as "a type of psychological
   predomination that could be rightly termed--religious
   enslavement".^[48] He further identifies "religious enslavement" as
   being a product of what is termed in the Bible "witchcraft" or


   Ronald Enroth in Churches That Abuse identifies five
   categories:^[citation needed]
    1. Authority and power: abuse arises when leaders of a group arrogate
       to themselves power and authority that lacks the dynamics of open
       accountability and the capacity to question or challenge decisions
       made by leaders. The shift entails moving from general respect for
       an office bearer to one where members loyally submit without any
       right to dissent.
    2. Manipulation and control: abusive groups are characterized by
       social dynamics where fear, guilt or threats are routinely used to
       produce unquestioning obedience, group conformity or stringent
       tests of loyalty. The leader-disciple relationship may become one
       in which the leader's decisions control and usurp the disciple's
       right or capacity to make choices.
    3. Elitism and persecution: abusive groups depict themselves as unique
       and have a strong organizational tendency to be separate from other
       bodies and institutions. The social dynamism of the group involves
       being independent or separate, with diminishing possibilities for
       internal correction or reflection, whilst outside criticism.
    4. Life-style and experience: abusive groups foster rigidity in
       behavior and belief that requires conformity to the group's ideals.
    5. Dissent and discipline: abusive groups tend to suppress any kind of
       internal challenge to decisions made by leaders.

   Agnes and John Lawless argue in The Drift into Deception that there are
   eight characteristics of spiritual abuse, and some of these clearly
   overlap with Enroth's criteria. They list the eight marks of spiritual
   abuse as comprising:^[citation needed]
    1. Charisma and pride
    2. Anger and intimidation
    3. Greed and fraud
    4. Immorality
    5. Enslaving authoritarian structure
    6. Exclusivity
    7. Demanding loyalty and honor
    8. New revelation

   The author of Charismatic Captivation^[50] in a post on the book's
   website delineates "33 Signs of Spiritual Abuse",^[51] including:
    1. Apotheosis or de facto deification of the leadership.
    2. Absolute authority of the leadership.
    3. Pervasive abuse and misuse of authority in personal dealings with
       members to coerce submission.
    4. Paranoia, inordinate egotism or narcissism, and insecurity by the
    5. Abuse and inordinate incidence of "church discipline" particularly
       in matters not expressly considered to be church discipline issues.
    6. Inordinate attention to maintaining the public image of the
       ministry and lambasting of all "critics".
    7. Constant indoctrination with a "group" or "family" mentality that
       impels members to exalt the corporate "life" and goals of the
       church-group over their personal goals, callings, objectives or
    8. Members are psychologically traumatized, terrorized and
       indoctrinated with numerous fears aimed at creating an
       over-dependence or codependence on their leaders and the corporate
    9. Members may be required to obtain the approval (or witness) of
       their leader(s) for decisions regarding personal matters.
   10. Frequent preaching from the pulpit discouraging leaving the
       religion or disobeying the leaderships' dictates.
   11. Members departing without the blessing of the leadership do so
       under a cloud of suspicion, shame, or slander.
   12. Departing members often suffer from psychological problems and
       display the symptoms associated with post-traumatic stress disorder

  Research and examples[edit]

   Flavil Yeakley's team of researchers conducted field-tests with members
   of the Boston Church of Christ using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.
   In The Discipling Dilemma Yeakley reports that the members tested
   "showed a high level of change in psychological type scores", with a
   "clear pattern of convergence in a single type".^[52] The same tests
   were conducted on five mainline denominations and with six groups that
   are popularly labeled as cults or manipulative sects. Yeakley's test
   results showed that the pattern in the Boston Church "was not found
   among other churches of Christ or among members of five mainline
   denominations, but that it was found in studies of six manipulative
   sects."^[52] The research did not show that the Boston Church was
   "attracting people with a psychological need for high levels of
   control", but Yeakley concluded that "they are producing conformity in
   psychological type" which he deemed to be "unnatural, unhealthy and

   This was not a longitudinal study and relied on asking participants to
   answer the survey three times; once as they imagined they might answer
   five years prior, once as their present selves and once as they
   imagined they might answer after five years of influence in the sect.
   The author insists that despite this, "any significant changes in the
   pattern of these perceptions would indicate some kind of group
   pressure. A high degree of change and a convergence in a single type
   would be convincing proof that the Boston Church of Christ has some
   kind of group dynamic operating that tends to produce conformity to the
   group norm." However it could instead indicate a desire on the part of
   the respondents to change in the direction indicated. To determine
   actual changes in MBTI results would require a longitudinal study,
   since the methodology here was inherently suggestive of its conclusion.
   This is also amply borne out in its instructions: "The instructions
   stated clearly that no one was telling them that their answers ought to
   change. The instructions said that the purpose of the study was simply
   to find out if there were any changes and, if so, what those changes
   might indicate."^[54]

See also[edit]

     * Catholic Church sexual abuse cases
     * Christina Kruesi
     * Exorcism
     * Forced conversion
     * Godly Response to Abuse in the Christian Environment
     * Infanticide
     * List of satanic ritual abuse allegations
     * Religious persecution
     * Religious trauma syndrome
     * Scientology controversies
     * Shunning
     * Social abuse
     * The Dark Pictures Anthology: Little Hope
     * Theological veto


    1. ^ ^a ^b ^c ^d Wright, Keith T. (2001). Religious Abuse: A Pastor
       Explores the Many Ways Religion Can Hurt As Well As Heal. Kelowna,
       B.C: Northstone Publishing. ISBN 1-896836-47-X.
    2. ^ "What Religious Abuse Is About". spiritwatch.org.
    3. ^ Nobakht, Habib Niyaraq; Dale (2018). "The importance of
       religious/ritual abuse as a traumatic predictor of dissociation".
       Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 33 (23): 3575-3588.
       doi:10.1080/19349637.2018.1439796. PMID 29294860. S2CID 148866046.
    4. ^ "YouTube - Jill Mytton Interview - Richard Dawkins". YouTube.
       Archived from the original on 2021-12-21. Retrieved May 26, 2009.
    5. ^ "Couple guilty of horrific witchcraft murder". Independent.co.uk.
       1 March 2012. Retrieved 25 January 2017.
    6. ^ "Witchcraft-based child abuse: Action plan launched". BBC News.
       2012-08-14. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
    7. ^ Tarico, Valerie. "Religious Trauma Syndrome: How Some Organized
       Religion Leads to Mental Health Problems". Truthout. Retrieved
    8. ^ ^a ^b ^c "Religious Trauma Syndrome: It's Time to Recognize it".
       www.babcp.com. Retrieved 2020-05-21.
    9. ^ Hartz, Gary W.; Everett, Henry C. (1989). "Fundamentalist
       Religion and Its Effect on Mental Health". Journal of Religion and
       Health. 28 (3): 207-217. doi:10.1007/BF00987752. ISSN 0022-4197.
       JSTOR 27506023. PMID 24276911. S2CID 1095871.
   10. ^ "Religious Trauma Syndrome: Trauma from Religion". www.babcp.com.
       Retrieved 2020-05-21.
   11. ^ "Religious Trauma Syndrome: Trauma from Leaving Religion".
       www.babcp.com. Retrieved 2020-05-21.
   12. ^ "Psychological Harms of Bible-Believing Christianity". ieet.org.
       Retrieved 2020-05-21.
   13. ^ Panchuk, Michelle (July 3, 2018). "The Shattered Spiritual Self:
       A Philosophical Exploration of Religious Trauma". Res Philosophica.
       95 (3): 505-530. doi:10.11612/resphil.1684 - via Philosophy
       Documentation Center.
   14. ^ Bevan-Lee, Donna (2018-11-11). "Religious Trauma in Childhood".
       Donna J. Bevan-Lee, Ph.D. MSW. Retrieved 2020-05-21.
   15. ^ Horowitz, D.L. (2000) The Deadly Ethnic Riot. University of
       California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA
   16. ^ Wellman, James; Tokuno, Kyoko (2004). "Is Religious Violence
       Inevitable?". Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion. 43 (3):
       291. doi:10.1111/j.1468-5906.2004.00234.x.
   17. ^ Milner, Larry S. (2000). Hardness of Heart / Hardness of Life:
       The Stain of Human Infanticide. University Press of America.
   18. ^ Reinhard, Johan; Maria Stenzel (November 1999). "A 6,700 metros
       ninos incas sacrificados quedaron congelados en el tiempo".
       National Geographic: 36-55.
   19. ^ "Watch video online". Retrieved 25 January 2017.
   20. ^ de Sahagun, Bernardino (1950-1982). Florentine Codex: History of
       the Things of New Spain, 12 books and 2 introductory volumes. Utah:
       University of Utah Press, translated and edited by Arthur J.O.
       Anderson and Charles Dibble.
   21. ^ ^a ^b deMause, Lloyd (2002). The Emotional Life of Nations. NY,
       London: Karnak.
   22. ^ ^a ^b Godwin, Robert W. (2004). One cosmos under God. Minnesota:
       Paragon House.
   23. ^ Miller, Alice (1991). Breaking down the walls of silence. NY:
       Dutton/Penguin Books. p. 91.
   24. ^ Brown, Shelby (1991). Late Carthaginian Child Sacrifice and
       Sacrificial Monuments in their Mediterranean Context. Sheffield:
       Sheffield Academic Press.
   25. ^ Davies, Nigel (1981). Human Sacrifice in History and Today. NY:
       William Morrow & Co. p. 192. ISBN 0880292113.
   26. ^ Grotstein, James S. (2000). Who is the dreamer who dreams the
       dream?. NJ: The Analytic Press, Relational Perspectives Book Series
       Volume 19 edition. pp. 247, 242. ISBN 0881633054.
   27. ^ Trinkaus, Erik (April 1982). "Artificial Cranial Deformation in
       the Shanidar 1 and 5 Neandertals". Current Anthropology. 23 (2):
       198-199. doi:10.1086/202808. JSTOR 2742361. S2CID 144182791.
   28. ^ Rousselle, Aline (1983). Porneia: On Desire and the Body in
       Antiquity. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. p. 54. ISBN 1610975820.
   29. ^ Tompkins, Peter (1963). The Eunuch and the Virgin: A Study of
       Curious Customs. NY: Bramhall House. p. 12.
   30. ^ Roheim, Geza (1950). Psychoanalysis and Anthropology. NY:
       International Universities Press. p. 76.
   31. ^ Drury, Nevill (1989). The Elements of Shamanism. Longmead:
       Element. p. 20. ISBN 1852300698.
   32. ^ ^a ^b Herdt, Gilbert (2005). The Sambia: Ritual, Sexuality, and
       Change in Papua New Guinea (Case Studies in Cultural Anthropology).
       Longmead: Wadsworth Publishing; 2 edition. p. 85.
   33. ^ Lewan, Todd (26 October 1992) Satanic Cult Killings Spread Fear
       in Southern Brazil, The Associated Press
   34. ^ Hamilton, Matt (2013-07-18). "Man given 25 years in mother's
       'satanic' killing". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved
   35. ^ Kelly, Kim (2017-07-05). "Are witches the ultimate feminists?".
       The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-12-05.
   36. ^ "The Gambia: Hundreds accused of "witchcraft" and poisoned in
       government campaign". www.amnesty.org. 18 March 2009. Retrieved
   37. ^ Rice, Xan (2009-03-19). "Gambian state kidnaps 1,000 villagers in
       mass purge of 'witchcraft'". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077.
       Retrieved 2017-12-05.
   38. ^ "Despite murderous attacks, Tanzania's 'witches' fight for land".
       Reuters. 21 March 2017. Retrieved 2017-12-05.
   39. ^ "Vejan en Africa a 'ninos brujos'" (Press release). Reforma. 19
       November 2007.
   40. ^ Didymus, Johnthomas (17 October 2011). "Ghana to send 'witches'
       banished to refugee camps back home". Digital Journal. Retrieved 25
       January 2017.
   41. ^ ""Witchcraft" an excuse for child abuse". Irin News. 12 December
       2006. Retrieved 25 January 2017.
   42. ^ Salopek, Paul (March 28, 2004). "Children in Angola tortured as
       witches". Chicago Tribune.
   43. ^ "Angola witchcraft's child victims". BBC. 2005-07-13. Retrieved
   44. ^ deMause, Lloyd (January 1982). Foundations of Psychohistory.
       Creative Roots Publishing. pp. 132-146. ISBN 0-940508-01-X.
   45. ^ Rascovsky, A. (1995). Filicide: The Murder, Humiliation,
       Mutilation, Denigration and Abandonment of Children by Parents. NJ:
       Aronson. p. 107.
   46. ^ ^a ^b ^c Lambert, p. 5
   47. ^ VanVonderen, Jeff: "Spiritual abuse occurs when someone in a
       position of spiritual authority, the purpose of which is to 'come
       underneath' and serve, build, equip and make a deity's or a god's
       people MORE free, misuses that authority placing themselves over a
       god's people to control, coerce or manipulate them for seemingly
       godly purposes which are really their own." [1]
   48. ^ Lambert, p. 253.
   49. ^ 2 Chronicles 33:6; Galatians 5:20; Revelation 18:23; et al.
   50. ^ Lambert
   51. ^ "The Signs of Spiritual Abuse". 15 November 2008. Retrieved 25
       January 2017.
   52. ^ ^a ^b Yeakley, p. 39
   53. ^ Yeakley, pp. 44, 46-47
   54. ^ Yeakley, pp. 30-31.

Cited sources[edit]


   Lambert, Steven (1996). Charismatic Captivation, Authoritarian Abuse &
   Psychological Enslavement in Neo-Pentecostal Churches. Real Truth

     Pasquale, T. (2015). Sacred Wounds: A Path to Healing from Spiritual
   Trauma. Chalice Press.

     Yeakley, Flavil (1988). The Discipling Dilemma (2nd ed.). Nashville:
   Gospel Advocate Company. ISBN 0-89225-311-8.

Further reading[edit]

     * Massi, Jeri, The Lambs Workbook: Recovering from Church Abuse,
       Clergy Abuse, Spiritual Abuse, and the Legalism of Christian
       Fundamentalism (2008)
     * O'Brien, Rosaleen Church Abuse, Drugs and E.C.T. (2009)

     * v
     * t
     * e



     * Anti-social behaviour
     * Bullying
     * Child abuse
          + neglect
          + sexual
          + military
          + marriage
     * Cruelty to animals
     * Disability abuse
          + military draft
     * Domestic abuse
     * Elder abuse
          + Financial
          + Marriage
     * Gaslighting
     * Harassment
     * Humiliation
     * Incivility
     * Institutional abuse
     * Intimidation
     * Neglect
     * Persecution
     * Professional abuse
     * Psychological abuse
     * Physical abuse
     * Social abuse
     * Police brutality
     * Religious abuse
     * Sexual abuse
     * Stalking
     * Structural abuse
     * Verbal abuse
     * more...

   Related topics

     * Abuse of power
     * Abusive power and control
     * Child grooming
     * Complex post-traumatic stress disorder
     * Dehumanization
     * Denial
     * Destabilisation
     * Exaggeration
     * Isolation
     * Just-world hypothesis
     * Lying
     * Manipulation
     * Minimisation
     * Narcissism
     * Psychological projection
     * Psychological trauma
     * Psychopathy
     * Rationalization
     * Traumatic bonding
     * Victim blaming
     * Victim playing
     * Victimisation

   Retrieved from

     * Abuse
     * Child abuse
     * Criminology
     * Child murder
     * Religion and violence
     * Rituals
     * Religion and mental health
     * Psychology and religious fundamentalism

   Hidden categories:
     * Articles with short description
     * Short description is different from Wikidata
     * All articles with unsourced statements
     * Articles with unsourced statements from January 2015

Navigation menu

Personal tools

     * Not logged in
     * Talk
     * Contributions
     * Create account
     * Log in


     * Article
     * Talk

   [ ] English


     * Read
     * Edit
     * View history

   [ ] More

   ____________________ Search Go


     * Main page
     * Contents
     * Current events
     * Random article
     * About Wikipedia
     * Contact us
     * Donate


     * Help
     * Learn to edit
     * Community portal
     * Recent changes
     * Upload file


     * What links here
     * Related changes
     * Upload file
     * Special pages
     * Permanent link
     * Page information
     * Cite this page
     * Wikidata item


     * Download as PDF
     * Printable version


     * a+l+e+r+b+y+tm
     * Espanol
     * f+a+r+s+
     * Srpskohrvatski / srpskohrvatski

   Edit links

     * This page was last edited on 27 September 2022, at 20:54 (UTC).
     * Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike
       License 3.0; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you
       agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia(R) is a
       registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a
       non-profit organization.

     * Privacy policy
     * About Wikipedia
     * Disclaimers
     * Contact Wikipedia
     * Mobile view
     * Developers
     * Statistics
     * Cookie statement

     * Wikimedia Foundation
     * Powered by MediaWiki
Copiat de la web.archive.org, cu Lynx.
Prima pagină
© 2022-2023 Matei. No cookies®